Data communication is an essential component of automation engineering.
Besides the widely-used standardized bus systems such as Profibus DP and Profinet IO, there is also the option of serial point-to-point connections. Different physical interfaces are used, depending on the application:
RS232 s a robust, established standard for universal applications
RS422 allows faster transmission rates and longer cable lengths.
RS485 enables the connection of multiple devices (multi-point connection)
TTY is suitable for especially long cables up to over 1000 m
Different protocols can be realized based on these physical transmission standards